domingo, 21 de mayo de 2006


In 1991, Francisco Belda Maruenda started a scientific project to study the physical capability of the human eye to see, detect and judge correctly an offside position in football. The hypothesis to confirm was: Is it possible to explain scientifically the fact that so many mistakes are made when referees judge an offside position?

The first result was obtained in 1996, with the publication in the Revista Oficial de la Real Federación Española de Fútbol of the study: Belda Maruenda, Francisco. ¿Está capacitado el ojo humano para ver un fuera de juego? Fútbol, 1996; Nº 4, Diciembre 1996-Enero 1997: 74-76.
After that, he went on with the study and in December of 2004, the second scientific article about the subject was published in the British Medical Journal: Can the human eye detect an offside position during a football match? British Medical Journal. 2004, December 18; 329 (7480): 1470 -1472.

The huge conclusion of this study is that the human eye is not enabled physiologically to detect an Offside.

Since March 20, 2007 until June 1, 2007 I published in the online edition of the BMJ a series of scientific papers as "rapid responses" that expanded my research in “Can the human eye detect an offside position during a football match?“. All of these scientific papers, together, form part of a research substantiated in a paper published in this Blog under the title "Is it possible to spot and judge an offside position during a football match"?.

On October 9, 2009 I finished my research with the publication of my last scientific paper in the online edition of the journal Nature Precedings: An Offside position in football cannot be detected in zero milliseconds, also published in this Blog.

The Offside Rule requires to be applied in real time, in zero milliseconds. The conclusion of this scientific paper is that the eye and the human brain and the technological media will never be capable of detecting and judge an offside position in real time, in zero milliseconds.

There are a lot of people who will be against this conclusion, because everybody is used to see an offside positions since 1866, date when this rule was introduced in football.
But time is the best judge and scientific progress can’t be underestimated or got around.
Since when will the offside rule go on existing? Or when will this rule be modified so that the human eye will be able to see and judge it correctly?

The IFAB has a problem. The IFAB must abolish the Offside Rule.